Research on Economic Preferences: Klaus F. Zimmermann will present in the UNU-MERIT Research Symposium, May Event Series, on Monday 16 May, 2022.

Professor Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University and GLO) will participate in the events around the “UNU-MERIT: 15 Year Celebration” next week. He contributes to the May Event Series: Research Seminars on May 16, 2022 by reporting about his work on “Economic Preferences”. In particular, he will speak about:

  • Shyamal Chowdhury, Matthias Sutter & Klaus F. Zimmermann (2022), “Economic Preferences across Generations and Family Clusters: A Large-scale Experiment in a Developing Country”. Journal of Political Economy, September 2022 (vol. 130, no. 9). ManuscriptPLUSonlineAppendix. (More details see below).

Shyamal Chowdhury, Matthias Sutter & Klaus F. Zimmermann (2022)

Economic Preferences across Generations and Family Clusters: A Large-scale Experiment in a Developing Country

Forthcoming: Journal of Political Economy, September 2022 (vol. 130, no. 9)

Using data from large-scale experiments with entire families for Bangladesh, the research finds that both mothers’ and fathers’ risk, time and social preferences are significantly positively correlated with their children’s economic preferences. Results differ from evidence for rich countries.

Free Pre-publication version

Abstract: Our large-scale experiment with 542 families from rural Bangladesh finds substantial intergenerational persistence of economic preferences. Both mothers’ and fathers’ risk, time and social preferences are significantly (and largely to the same degree) positively correlated with their children’s economic preferences, even when controlling for personality traits and socio-economic background. We discuss possible transmission channels and are the first to classify all families into one of two clusters, with either relatively patient, risk-tolerant and pro-social members or relatively impatient, risk averse and spiteful members. Classifications correlate with socio-economic background variables. We find that our results differ from evidence for rich countries.

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Agenda: Confidential and legal access to abortion and contraception in the United States. New research from the Journal of Population Economics by Caitlin Knowles Myers

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1073, 2022; in print:  Journal of Population Economics

Confidential and legal access to abortion and contraception in the United States, 1960-2020  Download PDF
by Myers, Caitlin Knowles

See also the GLO Post.

GLO Fellow Caitlin Myers

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Sunday morning visitor: Fox in my home garden

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Stronger external religiosity associates with smaller risky behaviors like smoking, drinking & drugs in Orthodox Romania. Research paper published freely accessible.

Using data for young Romanians a research paper finds that it is external religiosity that interacts with weaker addictive behaviors like smoking, drinking and using drugs. The study is now published OPEN ACCESS in the Journal of Economics, Management and Religion.

Religiosity, Smoking and Other Addictive Behaviors
by
Roman, Monica & Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Plopeanu, Aurelian-Petruș

Published: Journal of Economics, Management and Religion (JEMAR), Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022), 2250001. https://doi.org/10.1142/S2737436X22500017

OPEN ACCESS FREE PDF

Abstract: While under communism the identity-providing religion was suppressed, religiosity is strong today even among the youth in post-communist countries. This provides an appropriate background to investigate how external and internal religiosity relates to risky behaviors like smoking, drinking, and drugs among the young. This study shows that not religion as such or internal religiosity, but largely observable (external) religiosity prevents them from wallowing in those vices. While this is found strongly for both males and females, those females doubting or reflecting religion show a somewhat smaller risky activity. 

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Economic preferences across generations in a development country setting. New research accepted for publication in the Journal of Political Economy.

Using data from large-scale experiments with entire families for Bangladesh, the research finds that both mothers’ and fathers’ risk, time and social preferences are significantly positively correlated with their children’s economic preferences. Results differ from evidence for rich countries.

Shyamal Chowdhury, Matthias Sutter & Klaus F. Zimmermann (2022)

Economic Preferences across Generations and Family Clusters: A Large-scale Experiment in a Developing Country

Forthcoming: Journal of Political Economy, September 2022 (vol. 130, no. 9)

Free Pre-publication version

Abstract: Our large-scale experiment with 542 families from rural Bangladesh finds substantial intergenerational persistence of economic preferences. Both mothers’ and fathers’ risk, time and social preferences are significantly (and largely to the same degree) positively correlated with their children’s economic preferences, even when controlling for personality traits and socio-economic background. We discuss possible transmission channels and are the first to classify all families into one of two clusters, with either relatively patient, risk-tolerant and pro-social members or relatively impatient, risk averse and spiteful members. Classifications correlate with socio-economic background variables. We find that our results differ from evidence for rich countries.

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Smoking, drinking, drugs: Less risky behaviors with stronger external religiosity. Research paper published accessible.

Using data for young Romanians a research paper finds that it is external religiosity that interacts with weaker addictive behaviors like smoking, drinking and using drugs. The study is now forthcoming OPEN ACCESS in the Journal of Economics, Management and Religion.

Religiosity, Smoking and Other Addictive Behaviors
by
Roman, Monica & Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Plopeanu, Aurelian-Petruș

Published: Journal of Economics, Management and Religion (JEMAR), Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022), 2250001. https://doi.org/10.1142/S2737436X22500017

OPEN ACCESS FREE PDF

Abstract: While under communism the identity-providing religion was suppressed, religiosity is strong today even among the youth in post-communist countries. This provides an appropriate background to investigate how external and internal religiosity relates to risky behaviors like smoking, drinking, and drugs among the young. This study shows that not religion as such or internal religiosity, but largely observable (external) religiosity prevents them from wallowing in those vices. While this is found strongly for both males and females, those females doubting or reflecting religion show a somewhat smaller risky activity. 

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Register for a public event with Oded Galor: “The Journey of Humanity: The Origins of Wealth and Inequality” on March 21.

Oded Galor (Brown University) will speak on March 21, 2022 (4.00 pm to 5.30 pm CET Berlin time) in a public world-wide online event on

The Journey of Humanity: The Origins of Wealth and Inequality

(With some lessons for the Ukraine Crisis.)

Mark your calendars and register: Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZIud-yurj0vHdRk-dXXX7wY2WTTLg1BuH5S

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.

The event is jointly organized by Global Labor Organization (GLO), the Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) and POP @ UNU-MERIT.

The event is chaired by Klaus F. Zimmermann (President of GLO, Editor-in-Chief of JOPE, and Co-Director of POP)

The Journey of Humanity by Oded Galor

Oded Galor speaks about his new book just published with Penguin Random House in twenty-eight languages worldwide. It is released on March 22 in the USA and on April 7 in the UK.

Further details on the book (see also below) and how it can be purchased:
USA-LINK —– UK-LINK

He is Herbert H. Goldberger Professor of Economics at Brown University and the founding thinker behind Unified Growth Theory, which seeks to uncover the fundamental causes of development, prosperity and inequality over the entire span of human history. He is also the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Economic Growth and an Editor of the Journal of Population Economics.

In a captivating journey from the dawn of human existence to the present, world-renowned economist and thinker Oded Galor offers an intriguing solution to two of humanity’s great mysteries.

Why are humans the only species to have escaped – only very recently – the subsistence trap, allowing us to enjoy a standard of living that vastly exceeds all others? And why have we progressed so unequally around the world, resulting in the great disparities between nations that exist today? Immense in scope and packed with astounding connections, Galor’s gripping narrative explains how technology, population size, and adaptation led to a stunning “phase change” in the human story a mere two hundred years ago. But by tracing that same journey back in time and peeling away the layers of influence – colonialism, political institutions, societal structure, culture – he arrives also at an explanation of inequality’s ultimate causes: those ancestral populations that enjoyed fruitful geographical characteristics and rich diversity were set on the path to prosperity, while those that lacked it were disadvantaged in ways still echoed today.

As we face ecological crisis across the globe, The Journey of Humanity is a book of urgent truths and enduring relevance, with lessons that are both hopeful and profound: gender equality, investment in education, and balancing diversity with social cohesion are the keys not only to our species’ thriving, but to its survival.

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Understanding the setup and speed of global COVID-19 vaccination campaigns

“CAMPAGNE VACCINALE. Bons et mauvais élèves de la vaccination dans le monde: radioscopie des facteurs clés.”

Interview with the French Media Platform “Atlantico” on global drivers of vaccination success.

Here is the interview in French. (English draft below.) It relates to a VoxEU Column and research available as CEPR Discussion Paper (references and links to related papers below).

Vu M. Ngo, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Phuc V. Nguyen, Toan Luu Duc Huynh and Huan H. Nguyen (2022). “CAMPAGNE VACCINALE. Bons et mauvais élèves de la vaccination dans le monde : radioscopie des facteurs clés.”

Interview with the French media Atlantico. PDF. LINK to the French website.

Q: What are the main criteria for determining the success of a vaccination campaign in a given country ?

Our study looks at this from a global, cross-country perspective investigating how fast countries have moved with their vaccination campaigns after they got access to the vaccine. Factors considered in our statistical analysis were political regimes, the education system, Gross Domestic Product per capita, population density, share of older inhabitants, vaccines purchased, vaccine policies, average daily new infected COVID-19 cases and variables controlling for differences across continents.

Q: Do some countries have a structural advantage before starting a national vaccination campaign?

The intensity of the educational system is the most important, in particular at the beginning of the campaign. Later in the process, to get speed, it is the economic strength of the country. More democratic countries have advantages at the outset, they are more sensitive in reacting to people’s needs. But the differences to more autocratic countries become less relevant in the process.  Differences in vaccine policies mattered initially, but not afterwards.

Q: How important is it to determine these criteria before establishing a nationwide vaccination strategy ? Can the variables of the campaign be adjusted to fit the parameters of each country ? Can we see common incentives for different countries?  

These criteria provide a reference to judge the quality of country-specific strategies, the counterfactual to what the performance was against the average country in such a national situation. Since the challenge is global, it becomes also obvious that the rich and educated countries of the world need to support those that are still behind. It is also in their own interest.

Q: You note that democratic regimes have a faster rate of vaccination but that this advantage fades as they try to vaccinate more people. How much does the type of government in a country affect the success of a vaccination campaign? Based on these criteria, in what range is France?

We distinguished between full democracy, flaw democracy, hybrid regime and autocratic country. Initially, the differences of all those with autocratic countries were strong, but with the exception of full democracies these differences indeed faded away. Full democracies, as France, showed a persistent advantage however in the whole process. But we should admit that political regimes explain only 11% to 15% of the total factors we measure associated with the vaccination success.

Background studies:

Vu M. Ngo, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Phuc V. Nguyen, Toan Luu Duc Huynh and Huan H. Nguyen (2022). “Understanding the setup and speed of global COVID-19 vaccination campaigns”. VoxEU on 25 January 2022.

Vu M. Ngo, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Phuc V. Nguyen, Toan Luu Duc Huynh and Huan H. Nguyen (2021). “How education and GDP drive the COVID-19 vaccination campaign”. CEPR Discussion Paper No. 16757.

Related Covid-19 papers:

Gokhan Karabulut, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Mehmet Huseyin Bilgin and Asli Cansin Doker (2021), “Democracy and COVID-19 Outcomes”. Economics Letters (EL-Prepublication, EL-Online Appendix) Volume 203, June 2021, 109840 Open Access; free PDF. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2021.109840

Klaus F. Zimmermann, Gokhan Karabulut, Mehmet Huseyin Bilgin and Asli Cansin Doker  (2020), “Inter-country Distancing, Globalization and the Coronavirus Pandemic“, The World Economy, Vol. 43, pp. 1484-1498. OPEN ACCESS, doi:10.1111/twec.12969. PDF.

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The Academia Europaea expresses solidarity with partners in Ukraine – consequences for science and the humanities

On 1 March 2022, Academia Europaea (AE), the Academy of Europe, has published (LINK) a statement on the Russian invasion of the Ukraine. See the text below. Klaus F. Zimmermann is a member of AE and has served as Section Chair “Economics, Business and Management Sciences”, 2014 – 2021.

The Academia Europaea expresses solidarity with partners in Ukraine – consequences for science and the humanities

A statement of the Board of Trustees of the Academia Europaea

“The Academia Europaea strongly supports the European Union member states, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the EEA countries’ action against Russia’s belligerent attack on Ukraine, which is in violation of international law. We are following the positions of our partner Academies across Europe.

We are honoured to express our solidarity with all Ukrainian scholars of all disciplines, including our own members and non-members.

The Academia Europaea regards the Russian invasion as an attack on the fundamental values of freedom, democracy and self-determination, which in turn provide the basis for academic freedom and opportunities for academic cooperation.

The Academia Europaea members, are all distinguished international scholars. They have been elected because of their international status in the Sciences, the Humanities and the Social and Societal Sciences, as judged by their European colleagues and peers across our continent. We are proud to include members from the Ukraine and from the Russian Federation on equal terms. Science and scholarship thrive on open dialogue and collaboration. We are therefore especially saddened by this unprovoked action by the Russian government against the Ukraine, which seeks to destroy what we stand for – open dialogue and collaboration of equals. As an organisation, we have always maintained diverse and productive academic collaborations with all our members, from all European countries and we certainly will seek to continue this.

The Academia Europaea is aware of the consequences of this military action and at the same time deeply regrets the impact it will have on freedoms, including academic freedoms. We live in a multidimensional world, and only by means of close international academic cooperation can the crises facing humanity, such as climate change, species extinction or infectious diseases, be overcome. For this reason, our solidarity also goes out to our long- standing Russian members who are themselves now the innocent victims of the Russian regime’s invasion of Ukraine.

The Academia Europaea has noted the statements issued by many other European National Academies and Scientific Organisations and we will continue to respond in concert with them. We are especially pleased to see and wish to thank unreservedly, those organisations with the capabilities, that are putting into place schemes to provide safe havens and funds for Ukrainian researchers. We applaud your efforts.

Statement authorised for publication on 1 March 2022 by the Board of Trustees of the Academia Europaea.

NOTE: The Academia Europaea has a membership of 4800 individual scholars who are spread across all countries of the continent of Europe and beyond.

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Peace NOW in Europe

The current tragedy in Europe marks some of the darkest days on this continent since WWII. It has made us speechless for a few days and upset. We deeply feel with the people and express the strongest solidarity on all levels possible. The world has changed, and so do policies. With the huge global long-term implications of this conflict, globalization, international understanding and collaborations remain key for the future wellbeing of the world. We need to strongly continue our efforts. The Ukraine deserves EU membership as part of any political solution.

RESEARCH freely accessible through the provided links.

Research from better times on the Ukraine: (i) 2013 – 2014 on the EaP countries undertaken for the EU commission and (ii) work on the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. IZA’s Founding Director Klaus F. Zimmermann was a co-leader of this research and supported the creation of the survey.

Eastern Partnership Migrants in Germany: Outcomes, Potentials and Challenges; IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 3:7 (2014); Costanza Biavaschi & Klaus F. Zimmermann
“We find that EaP migrants experience worse labor market outcomes than other migrant groups, but current and potential migrants hold qualifications in those areas were skill shortages are expected.”

Labour Migration from EaP Countries to the EU – Assessment of Costs and Benefits and Proposals for Better Labour Market Matching; IZA Research Report, No. 56, Bonn 2013 (164 pages); Martin Kahanec, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Lucia Kureková & Costanza Biavaschi
“The report points out that policy intervention needs to go beyond migration policy alone in order to achieve better labour market matching and to bring most benefits and least costs to receiving countries, sending countries and migrants.”

Migration from the Eastern Partnership Countries to the European Union — Options for a Better Future; IZA Research Report, No. 55, Bonn 2013 (50 pages); Luca Barbone, Martin Kahanec, Lucia Kureková & Klaus F. Zimmermann
“As a result of the analysis and findings of this project, we propose a gradual liberalisation of mobility between the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries as a first-best policy alternative.”

The Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey: Towards a Better Understanding of Labor Markets in Transition; IZA Journal of Labor and Development, 1:9 (2012); Hartmut Lehmann, Alexander Muravyev & Klaus F. Zimmermann
“The paper presents the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS), which is one of the most widely used household and labor force surveys in Eastern Europe.”

The Russian-Ukrainian Earnings Divide; Economics of Transition, 20 (2012), pp. 1-35; Amelie F. Constant, Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann
“we find a persistent and increasing labour market divide between ethnic Russians and Ukrainians throughout Ukraine’s transition era. We establish that language, rather than nationality, is the key factor behind this ethnic premium favouring Russians.”

The Russian-Ukrainian Political Divide; Eastern European Economics, 49 (2011), pp. 97-109; Amelie F. Constant, Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann
“Analysis using unique micro data collected prior to the revolution finds that voting preferences for the forces of the forthcoming Orange Revolution were strongly driven by preferences for political and economic reforms but were also independently significantly affected by ethnicity, specifically, language and nationality. Russian speakers, as opposed to Ukrainian speakers, were significantly less likely to vote for the Orange Revolution, and nationality had similar effects.”

***

2017: Keynote of Zimmermann on “Migration & Wellbeing” at an International Conference in Kyiv: Info-Link

Berlin, 27 February 2022

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