Minimum working age and the gender mortality gap

A new paper published ONLINE FIRST freely accessible finds that the minimum working age raised from 14 to 16 in Spain, while the compulsory education age remained at 14. The reform decreased mortality at ages 14–29 among men by 6.4% and women by 8.9%, mainly from a reduction in deaths due to traffic accidents. However, the reform also increased mortality for women ages 30–45 by 7%.

Minimum working age and the gender mortality gap

by Cristina Bellés-Obrero, Sergi Jiménez-Martín & Judit Vall Castello

Published ONLINE FIRST 2021: Journal of Population Economics
READLINK: https://rdcu.be/cq2lY

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Author Abstract: In 1980, a few years after its democratization process, Spain raised the minimum working age from 14 to 16, while the compulsory education age remained at 14. This reform changed the within-cohort incentives to remain in the educational system. We use a difference-in-differences approach, where our treated and control individuals only differ in their month of birth, to analyze the gender asymmetries in mortality generated by this change. The reform decreased mortality at ages 14–29 among men by 6.4% and women by 8.9%, mainly from a reduction in deaths due to traffic accidents. However, the reform also increased mortality for women ages 30–45 by 7%. This is driven by increases in HIV mortality, as well as by diseases related to the nervous and circulatory systems. We show that women’s health habits deteriorated as a consequence of the reform, while this was not the case for men. The gender differences in the impact of the reform on smoking and drinking should be understood in the context of the gender equalization process that affected women were experiencing when the reform took place. All in all, these patterns help explain the narrowing age gap in life expectancy between women and men in many developed countries while, at the same time, they provide important policy implications for middle-income countries that are undergoing those gender equalization processes right now.

Number of submissions, 2010-2020
EiC Report 2020

SSCI IMPACT FACTOR 2.813 (2020) from 1.840 (2019) & 1.253 (2018)
SSCI 5-Year Impact Factor 3.318 (2020) from 2.353 (2019) & 2.072 (2018)


Journal of Population Economics
Access to the recently published Volume 34, Issue 3, July 2021.

LEAD ARTICLE OF ISSUE 3, 2021:
The safest time to fly: pandemic response in the era of Fox News
by Maxim Ananyev, Michael Poyker and Yuan Tian

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The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Retirement, housing mobility, downsizing and neighbourhood quality

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that retirement leads to a statistically significant and sizable increase in the probability of making a residential move or the likelihood of becoming outright homeowners.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 882, 2021

Retirement, housing mobility, downsizing and neighbourhood quality – A causal investigation Download PDF
by
Nguyen, Ha Trong & Mitrou, Francis & Zubrick, Stephen R.

GLO Fellow Ha Nguyen

Ha Nguyen

Author Abstract: This paper provides the first causal evidence on the impact of retirement on housing choices. Our empirical strategy exploits the discontinuity in the eligibility ages for state pension as an instrument for the endogenous retirement decision and controls for time-invariant individual characteristics. The results show that retirement leads to a statistically significant and sizable increase in the probability of making a residential move or the likelihood of becoming outright homeowners. We also find that individuals downsize both physically and financially and tend to move to better neighbourhoods or closer to the coast upon retirement. We additionally discover that some housing adjustments take place up to 6 years before retirement. Moreover, our results reveal significant heterogeneity in the retirement impact by gender, marital status, education, housing tenue, income and wealth. Within couple households, housing mobility choices are primarily influenced by the wife’s retirement while housing downsizing decisions are only affected by the husband’s retirement. The results suggest that failing to address the endogeneity of retirement often under-states the retirement impact on such housing arrangements.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Financial education for youth: A randomized evaluation in Uruguay

A new GLO Discussion Paper evaluates the impact of an economic and financial education program targeted to senior high-school students and finds positive effects.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 881, 2021

Financial education for youth: A randomized evaluation in Uruguay Download PDF
by
Borraz, Fernando & Caro, Ana & Caño-Guiral, Maira & Roa, María José

GLO Fellow Fernando Borraz

Fernando Borraz

Author Abstract: Using data from a randomized control trial in Uruguay, we evaluate the impact of an economic and financial education program targeted to senior high-school students. The program is based on an innovative playful approach workshop about monetary policy and financial supervision. We find that the workshop has a positive and significant impact on student knowledge. Our results shed light on the importance of economic and financial education for the youth in developing countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Coronagraben in Switzerland: culture and social distancing in times of COVID-19.

A new paper published ONLINE FIRST OPEN ACCESS finds that within the Swiss context, high trusting areas exhibited a smaller decline in mobility.

Coronagraben in Switzerland: culture and social distancing in times of COVID-19

by Neha Deopa & Piergiuseppe Fortunato

Published ONLINE FIRST 2021: Journal of Population Economics

OPEN ACCESS. And PDF. GLO Discussion Paper No. 857.

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Author Abstract: Social distancing measures help contain the spread of COVID-19, but actual compliance has varied substantially across space and time. We ask whether cultural differences underlie this heterogeneity using mobility data across Switzerland between February and December 2020. We find that German-speaking cantons decreased their mobility for non-essential activities significantly less than French-speaking cantons. However, we find no such significant differences for bilingual cantons. Contrary to the evidence in the literature, we find that within the Swiss context, high trusting areas exhibited a smaller decline in mobility. Additionally, cantons supporting a limited role of the state in matters of welfare also experienced a smaller reduction in mobility.

Number of submissions, 2010-2020
EiC Report 2020

SSCI IMPACT FACTOR 2.813 (2020) from 1.840 (2019) & 1.253 (2018)
SSCI 5-Year Impact Factor 3.318 (2020) from 2.353 (2019) & 2.072 (2018)


Journal of Population Economics
Access to the recently published Volume 34, Issue 3, July 2021.

LEAD ARTICLE OF ISSUE 3, 2021:
The safest time to fly: pandemic response in the era of Fox News
by Maxim Ananyev, Michael Poyker and Yuan Tian

OPEN ACCESS: Free ReadlinkDownload PDF


The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Poverty in Russia: A Bird’s-Eye View of Trends and Dynamics in the Past Quarter of Century

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that poverty in Russia has been steadily decreasing, with most of the poor having a transient rather than a chronic nature.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 880, 2021

Poverty in Russia: A Bird’s-Eye View of Trends and Dynamics in the Past Quarter of Century Download PDF
by
Abanokova, Kseniya & Dang, Hai-Anh H.

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: Hardly any recent study exists that broadly reviews poverty trends over time for Russia. Analyzing the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys between 1994 and 2019, we offer an updated review of poverty trends and dynamics for the country over the past quarter of century. We find that poverty has been steadily decreasing, with most of the poor having a transient rather than a chronic nature. The bottom 20 percent of the income distribution averages an annual growth rate of 5 percent, which compares favorably with that of 3.3 percent for the whole population. Income growth, particularly the shares that are attributed to labor incomes and public transfers, have important roles in reducing poverty. Our findings are relevant to poverty and social protection policies.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Deteriorated sleep quality does not explain the negative impact of smartphone use on academic performance

A new GLO Discussion Paper using data of Belgian students finds no statistically significant mediating effect of sleep quality in the relationship between smartphone use and academic performance.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 879, 2021

Deteriorated sleep quality does not explain the negative impact of smartphone use on academic performance Download PDF
by
Amez, Simon & Vujić, Sunčica & Abrath, Margo & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellows Suncica Vujic & Stijn Baert

Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: University students’ smartphone use has recently been shown to negatively affect their academic performance. Surprisingly, research testing the empirical validity of potential mechanisms underlying this relationship is very limited. In particular, indirect effects of negative health consequences due to heavy smartphone use have never been investigated. To fill this gap, we investigate, for the first time, whether deteriorated sleep quality drives the negative impact on academic performance. To this end, we examine longitudinal data on 1,635 students at two major Belgian universities. Based on a combination of a random effects approach and seemingly unrelated regression, we find no statistically significant mediating effect of sleep quality in the relationship between smartphone use and academic performance.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Celebrating 20 years of service as Free University Berlin Honorary Professor, Klaus F. Zimmermann directed a Student Research Seminar on “Evidence-based policy advice” in the summer term 2021 online at the Free University Berlin. Highlight was a guest visit of the former head of the German Council of Economic Experts, Lars Feld (University of Freiburg).

Klaus F. Zimmermann, Professor Emeritus of Bonn University, now affiliated with UNU-MERIT at Maastricht University, is also an Honorary Professor of the Free University (FU) Berlin since 2001. He was originally appointed Honorary Professor in connection with his position as President of the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin, 2000-2011).

In the summer term 2021, Zimmermann was directing an online seminar series for FU Master students on “Scientific Policy Advice” (“Wissenschaftliche Politikberatung”) drawing  from his over 30 years of experience in various policy advisory positions.


Against the background of globalization, populism and Covid-19, the workshop examined the relevance of evidence-based policy making and the challenges of scientific advice. Student research papers dealt with topics like globalization, populism, the German Council of Economic Experts, the role of research institutes, business cycle forecasts, pension issues and minimum wages.

A highlight was the guest visit of Professor Lars Feld on June 23, 2021 to debate his experiences with the students and Professor Zimmermann. Lars Feld has been a member of the German Council of Economic Experts (2010-2021) and its head (2020-2021). He is the Director of the Walter Eucken Institut and Professor for Economic Policy at the University of Freiburg.

The seminar series also contributed to the celebrations of Zimmermann’s 20 years of service in teaching as an Honorary Professor for the Department of Economics (Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften) of the Free University Berlin.

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Immigration and intergenerational economic mobility

A new paper published ONLINE FIRST freely accessible in the Journal of Population Economics finds that immigration from low-income countries reduces intergenerational mobility and thus steepens the social gradient in natives’ labor market outcomes, whereas immigration from high-income countries levels it.

Immigration and economic mobility

by Maria F. Hoen, Simen Markussen and Knut Røed

Published ONLINE FIRST 2021: Journal of Population Economics

OPEN ACCESS. PDF.

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Author Abstract: We examine how immigration affects natives’ relative prime-age labor market outcomes by economic class background, with class background established on the basis of parents’ earnings rank. Exploiting alternative sources of variation in immigration patterns across time and space, we find that immigration from low-income countries reduces intergenerational mobility and thus steepens the social gradient in natives’ labor market outcomes, whereas immigration from high-income countries levels it. These findings are robust with respect to a wide range of identifying assumptions. The analysis is based on high-quality population-wide administrative data from Norway, which is one of the rich-world countries with the most rapid rise in the immigrant population share over the past two decades. Our findings suggest that immigration can explain a considerable part of the observed relative decline in economic performance among natives with a lower-class background.

Number of submissions, 2010-2020
EiC Report 2020

SSCI IMPACT FACTOR 2.813 (2020) from 1.840 (2019) & 1.253 (2018)
SSCI 5-Year Impact Factor 3.318 (2020) from 2.353 (2019) & 2.072 (2018)


Journal of Population Economics
Access to the recently published Volume 34, Issue 3, July 2021.

LEAD ARTICLE OF ISSUE 3, 2021:
The safest time to fly: pandemic response in the era of Fox News
by Maxim Ananyev, Michael Poyker and Yuan Tian

OPEN ACCESS: Free ReadlinkDownload PDF




The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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The case of Astrazeneca’s Vaxzevria vaccine: Can a supranational medicines agency restore trust after vaccine suspensions?

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the impact of the European Medicines Agency’s 2021 March 18th statement assuring the public of the safety of Vaxzevria and the immediate reinstatement of the vaccine by most countries to find that survey respondents’ intention to get vaccinated substantially restored.

Andrea Albanese

GLO Discussion Paper No. 878, 2021

Can a supranational medicines agency restore trust after vaccine suspensions? The case of Vaxzevria Download PDF
by
Albanese, Andrea & Fallucchi, Francesco & Verheyden, Bertrand

GLO Fellow Andrea Albanese

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: Over the first half of March 2021, the majority of European governments suspended Astrazeneca’s Vaxzevria vaccine as a precaution following media reports of rare blood clots. We analyse the impact of the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) March 18th statement assuring the public of the safety of Vaxzevria and the immediate reinstatement of the vaccine by most countries on respondents’ intention to get vaccinated. By relying on survey data collected in Luxembourg and neighbouring areas between early March and mid-April, we observe that the willingness to be vaccinated was severely declining in the days preceding the EMA statement. We implement a regression discontinuity design exploiting the time at which respondents completed the survey and find that the vaccine reinstatement substantially restored vaccination intentions.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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How Collective Bargaining Shapes Poverty: New Evidence for Developed Countries

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that a poverty-reducing effect of collective bargaining institutions stems from the political strength of trade unions in promoting public social spending rather than from any direct effect on earnings inequalities.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 877, 2021

How Collective Bargaining Shapes Poverty: New Evidence for Developed Countries Download PDF
by
Pineda-Hernández, Kevin & Rycx, François & Volral, Mélanie

GLO Fellows François Rycx & Melanie Volral

Author Abstract: Although many studies point to the significant influence of collective bargaining institutions on earnings inequalities, evidence on how these institutions shape poverty rates across developed economies remains surprisingly scarce. It would be a mistake, though, to believe that the relationship between earnings inequalities and poverty is straightforward. Indeed, whereas earnings inequalities are measured at the individual level, poverty is calculated at the household level using equivalised (disposable) incomes. Accordingly, in most developed countries poverty is not primarily an issue of the working poor. This paper explicitly addresses the relationship between collective bargaining systems and working-age poverty rates in 24 developed countries over the period 1990-2015. Using an up-to-date and fine-grained taxonomy of bargaining systems and relying on state-of-the-art panel data estimation techniques, we find that countries with more centralised and/or coordinated bargaining systems display significantly lower working-age poverty rates than countries with largely or fully decentralised systems. However, this result only holds in a post-tax benefit scenario. Controlling for country-fixed effects and endogeneity, our estimates indeed suggest that the poverty-reducing effect of collective bargaining institutions stems from the political strength of trade unions in promoting public social spending rather than from any direct effect on earnings inequalities.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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