October 21, 2019. Trans People: Transitioning, Mental Health, and Life and Job Satisfaction. A New GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews challenges and perspectives of work policies affecting the well-being of trans people.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 414, 2019

Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction –  Download PDF
by
Drydakis, Nick

GLO Fellow Nick Drydakis

Author Abstract: For trans people (i.e. people whose gender is not the same as the sex they were assigned at birth) evidence suggests that transitioning (i.e. the steps a trans person may take to live in the gender with which they identify) positively affects positivity towards life, extraversion, ability to cope with stress, optimism about the future, self-reported health, social relations, self-esteem, body image, enjoyment of tasks, personal performance, job rewards and relations with colleagues. These relationships are found to be positively affected by gender affirmation and support from family members, peers, schools and workplaces, stigma prevention programs, coping intervention strategies, socioeconomic conditions, anti-discrimination policies, and positive actions. Also important are legislation including the ability to change one’s sex on government identification documents without having to undergo sex reassignment surgery, accessible and affordable transitioning resources, hormone therapy, surgical treatments, high-quality surgical techniques, adequate preparation and mental health support before and during transitioning, and proper follow-up care. Societal marginalization, family rejection, violations of human and political rights in health care, employment, housing and legal systems, gendered spaces, and internalization of stigma can negatively affect trans people’s well-being and integration in societies. The present study highlights that although transitioning itself can bring well-being adjustments, a transphobic environment may result in adverse well-being outcomes. Policy makers should aim to facilitate transitioning and create cultures of inclusion in different settings, such as schools, workplaces, health services and justice.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Visiting Bundeskunsthalle Bonn: “Bundespreis für Kunststudierende”

Bundeskunsthalle Bonn: “Bundespreis für Kunststudierende” — FEDERAL PRIZE FOR ART STUDENTS. Reflection challenges.

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October 20, 2019. School-to-Work Transitions. Report about a joint AIEL-CCME/GLO Session at the 34th AIEL Conference held in Novara/Italy

On September 12-13, 2019 the 34th Annual Conference of the Italian Association of Labour Economists (AIEL) took place in Novara/Italy. During the conference, a joint session AIEL-CCME/GLO was organized. Please find here the program with the speakers in bold, the bio of the speakers and the paper abstracts. The report was provided by Francesco Pastore (University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli), GLO Country Lead Italy and GLO Thematic Cluster Lead School-to-Work Transition.

Joint Session AIEL-CCME / GLO: School-to-Work Transitions

Organizer and chair: GLO Fellow Enkelejda Havari (European Commission JRC)

Antonella Rocca (University of Naples Parthenope), Floro Ernesto Caroleo (University of Naples Parthenope and GLO), Francesco Pastore (University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli and GLO), Claudio Quintano (University of Naples Parthenope):
The School-to-Work Transition: What Affects Mainly its Duration?

Elena Claudia Meroni (European Commission JRC), Daniela Piazzalunga (Università di Verona), Chiara Pronzato (Università di Torino):
Use of Extra-school Time and Child Behaviour

Enkelejda Havari (European Commission JRC and GLO), Franco Peracchi (Georgetown University, EIEF and University of Rome “Tor Vergata”):
Intergenerational Effects of War on Education: Evidence from World War II in Europe

Silvia Granato (University of Warwick):
Early Influences and the Gender Gap in STEM

Bios

Antonella Rocca is Aggregate Professor in Economic Statistics (Qualified as Associate Professor) at the Department of Management and Quantitative Studies, (Excellence Department), University of Naples “Parthenope”, Italy, where she teaches “Statistics for Business” and “Information systems for decision-making processes in public administration”. Her research interests concern labor markets, with a focus on the most disadvantaged groups (young people, women, immigrants). She uses econometric models and decomposition techniques for the analysis of economic gaps and constructs composite indicators for cross-countries comparisons. She collaborates with the European Commission and other international scientific organizations as expert for the evaluation of scientific projects.

Elena Claudia Meroni is Research Fellow at the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). She is part of the Competence Centre on Microeconomic Evaluation (CC-ME), within the Monitoring, Indicators and Evaluation unit. She holds a PhD in Statistics from the University of Padua. During her PhD she has been a visiting scholar at Pompeu Fabra University. Her main research interests are policy evaluation, economics of education, labour economics, economics of the family and demography.

Enkelejda Havari is Research Fellow at the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). She is part of the Competence Centre on Microeconomic Evaluation (CC-ME), within the Monitoring, Indicators and Evaluation unit. Before joining the Commission in 2015, she was a Visiting Scholar and Lecturer at the Economics Department of Boston University and a Post-Doctoral researcher at the University of Ca’ Foscari Venice. She holds a Ph.D. in Econometrics and Empirical Economics from the University of Rome “Tor Vergata” and a M.Sc. in Economics from the University of Bologna. Her research interests lie in the area of applied micro-econometrics and impact evaluation with a special focus on labour economics, economics of education, and family economics. 

Silvia Granato is Research Fellow at the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). She is part of the Competence Centre on Microeconomic Evaluation (CC-ME), within the Monitoring, Indicators and Evaluation unit. Before joining the Commission in September 2019 she was a Teaching Fellow at the Economics Department of Warwick University, teaching courses on labour economics and applied economics. In 2018 she completed her PhD in Economics at Queen Mary University of London, after obtaining two Master’s Degrees in Economics – at the University of Naples and at the Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.  Her main research interests are in the area of applied micro-econometrics, in particular topics related to economics of education and gender economics. 

Abstracts of papers

The school to work transition: What affects mainly its duration?
Antonella Rocca (University of Naples Parthenope) with Floro Ernesto Caroleo (University of Naples Parthenope), Francesco Pastore (University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli), Claudio Quintano (University of Naples Parthenope)

In this research, the authors analyze the School-To-Work Transition (STWT) in a selection of 21 European countries by level of education (low and medium vs high education). The main scope of this research consists in identifying the determinants of such different durations of the STWT across the countries considered. Duration models based on survivor functions are used including a wide spectrum of factors linked to personal characteristics, labour market and institutional factors and aspects related to the education system and the type of transition regime. The authors contribute to the existing literature in many ways. First of all, they analyze the duration of STWT rather than unemployment duration. Second, a separate analysis of low and medium educated is provided, which is usually neglected in previous studies. Data refer to the EU-SILC cross-sectional waves from 2013 to 2017. All sample units aged between 18 and 34, who completed education two years before, are included in the analysis. Those who are attempting military service, student-workers and permanent disabled are also excluded from the analysis. Results suggest that, even after controlling for all these factors, Continental and Liberal countries show performances significantly higher in comparison above all with the countries of the Mediterranean regime. Another important result is that, after the model has been corrected to account for unobserved heterogeneity, data show positive duration dependence, that means that the probability of achieving a job increases with time but also the need to improve the set of indicators for the education system monitoring and the importance of individual characteristics not captured by the observed covariates.

Use of extra-school time and child behaviour
Elena Claudia Meroni (European Commission JRC) with Daniela Piazzalunga (University of Verona) and Chiara Pronzato (University of Turin)

In this paper, we study the effects of extra-school activities on children’s non-cognitive development, using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and focusing on children aged 7-11 years old. We classify the time spent out of school into six homogenous groups of activities, using principal component analysis, and estimate the relationship thereof with five behavioural dimensions drawn from the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire, exploiting the panel structure of the data. Results show the beneficial effects on children’s behaviour of sports, school-related activities, time with parents and household chores, while a small detrimental effect of video-screen time is detected. We test the robustness of our estimates against omitted variable bias, and the results are confirmed.

Intergenerational effects of war on education: Evidence from World War II in Europe Enkelejda Havari (European Commission JRC) with Franco Peracchi (Georgetown University, EIEF and University of Rome “Tor Vergata”)

The negative effects of war on the education and health of the civilian population are well documented. However, there is no evidence on whether these effects extend to subsequent generations. To fill-in this gap we analyze the inter-generational effects of World War II on educational attainments focusing on parent-child dyads in which parents were born in 1926– 1949. We show two things. First, parents who suffered the war, that is, were exposed to major war events or personally experienced war-related hardship, ended up with less schooling than parents with similar characteristics who did not. Second, the children of parents who suffered the war have lower educational attainments than the children of parents with similar characteristics who did not suffer the war. Our reduced form results also suggest estimates of the coefficient of inter-generational transmission of education based on war-related hardships as instruments. These estimates show that mother’s education matters more for daughters, whereas father’s education matters more for sons.

Early influences and the gender gap in STEM
Silvia Granato (University of Warwick)

Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in industrialized countries in the last 40 years, women still pursue degrees in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) much less than their male peers do. I use data from a uniquely rich and largely unexplored source that combines both administrative and survey information on the population of Italian graduates to analyse the determinants of gender gaps in STEM graduation rates for Italian college leaving cohorts from 2010 to 2015, with emphasis on family, cultural and school influences, as well as geographic proximity in the supply of STEM degrees. Half of the gender gap in STEM graduation is attributed to the gender difference in maths and science content of the respective high school curricula. My results indicate that in Italy the gender gap in STEM graduation has its roots in a gendered choice originating many years before. This finding suggests that the role of the influence of environmental factors – such as the family – in the different educational choices of females and males is even greater than can be estimated through this study.

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October 19, 2019. Global Interdisciplinary Policy Research Conference on ‘Youth Transitions’ in Geneva/Switzerland, February 20-21, 2020. Call for contributions by November 15, 2019.

GLO is collaborating in the Organization of  The  Global Interdisciplinary Policy Research Conference on Youth Transitions, organized by the Center for Finance and Development of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, on the 20-21 February 2020 in Geneva/Switzerland.

The Conference, organized with the support of multiple partners, will bring together researchers from academia across disciplines with policy practitioners across public and private stakeholders, to  review the state of policy research and debate on youth transitions.

Multiple dimensions of youth transitions will be discussed: the crises in school to work transition  and future of work prospects for young people; youth transitions in situations of conflict and peace-building; and youth participation in civic and political spheres.

The Conference will also launch the first Global Network of Policy Research on Youth Transitions that will promote and partner for expanded  policy and research interface on priority issues.

To participate, please register at the Conference Webpage. Attendance is free, however participants will have bear their own cost of travel and accommodation. Program.

For partnerships and contributions to the debate and to the future Global Network, please contact GLO Policy Director Azita Berar by November 15, 2019.

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October 19, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘30,000 minimum wages: The economic effects of collective bargaining extensions’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Portugal that while wages of continuing workers were increasing following an extension, formal employment and wage bills in the relevant sectors were falling.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 413, 2019

30,000 minimum wages: The economic effects of collective bargaining extensions –  Download PDF
by
Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro S. Martins

Author Abstract: Many governments extend the coverage of collective agreements to workers and employers that were not involved in their bargaining. These extensions may address coordination issues but may also distort competition by imposing sector-specific minimum wages and other work conditions that are not suitable for some firms and workers. In this paper, we analyze the impact of such extensions along several economic margins. Drawing on worker- and firm-level monthly data for Portugal, a country where extensions have been widespread, and the scattered timing of the extensions, we find that, while continuing workers experience wage increases following an extension, formal employment and wage bills in the relevant sectors fall, on average, by 2%. These results increase by about 25% across small firms and are driven by reduced hiring. In contrast, the employment and wage bills of independent contractors, who are not subject to labor law or collective bargaining, increases by over 1% following an extension.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 18, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Does Increased Teacher Accountability Decrease Leniency in Grading?’

A new GLO Discussion Paper assesses the effects of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 412, 2019

Does Increased Teacher Accountability Decrease Leniency in Grading? –  Download PDF
by
Puhani, Patrick A. & Yang, Philip

GLO Fellow Patrick A. Puhani

Author Abstract: Because accountability may improve the comparability that is compromised by lenient grading, we compare exit exam outcomes in the same schools before and after a policy change that increased teacher accountability by anchoring grading scales. In particular, using a large administrative dataset of 364,445 exit exam outcomes for 72,889 students, we assess the effect of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups. We find that implementation of these standards increases scoring differences between the two school types by about 25 percent.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 18, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Return, Circular, and Onward Migration Decisions in a Knowledge Society’

A new GLO Discussion Paper provides a state-of-the-art literature review about research that aims to explain the return, repeat, circular and onward migration of the highly-skilled migrants around the world.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 411, 2019

Return, Circular, and Onward Migration Decisions in a Knowledge Society –  Download PDF
by
Constant, Amelie F.

GLO Fellow Amelie Constant

Author Abstract: This chapter provides a state-of-the-art literature review about research that aims to explain the return, repeat, circular and onward migration of the highly-skilled migrants around the world. After it describes the status quo in the knowledge economy and the international race for talent, it presents the relevant theories and concepts of migration in the social sciences and how these theories accommodate the phenomena of return, repeat and onward migration. A special section is devoted to selection. The chapter then summarizes, evaluates, and juxtaposes existing empirical evidence related to theoretical predictions. Observables such as education, income, gender and home country as well as unobservables such as ability, social capital and negotiating skills play a strong role in influencing return, repeat and onward migration decisions. Yet, there is no consensus on the direction of the effect. The chapter discusses shortcomings and limitations along with policy lessons. It concludes by highlighting holes in the literature and the need for better data.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Tatort Buchmesse Frankfurt: Visiting the Bookfare Frankfurt 2019 (Oct 16 – 20). #BuchmesseFrankfurt ; #fbf2019; #Herkunft, #Habeck

Impressions from a visit on October 16, 2019. #Tatort; Saša Stanišić – Winner of the Novel of the year 2019 Award for “Herkunft”; Robert Habeck – German writer and politician, co-chairperson of Alliance ’90/The Greens, a potential candidate for chancellor, spoke about “The human-animal relationship in industrial livestock production”.

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October 15, 2019. Migration, Populism and the Crisis of Globalization. Call for contributions for a March 2020 event in Pisa/Italy.

March 30-31, 2020 in Pisa, Italy. The GLO supported workshop on “Migrations, Populism and the Crisis of Globalization” will take place at the Department of Economics of the University of Pisa. Submission deadline is 15 January 2020. For a detailed conference announcement see below.

  • Please send an abstract of approx. 300 words to the editorial board of the academic journal Scienza e Pace/Science and Peace (redazione@cisp.unipi.it) and to the AISSEC secretariat (aissec.org@gmail.com) by 15 January 2020. Acceptance will be notified around mid-February. A first draft of the paper would be expected by mid-March.
  • An issue of Scienza e Pace/Science and Peace will be devoted to the themes addressed in the workshop and will include the articles that will be submitted by April 30, 2020. Conference participants are particularly encouraged to submit their papers. The articles submitted for publication in the journal will be subject to peer review refereeing.
  • Francesco Pastore, GLO Country Lead Italy, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, is representing GLO.

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October 11, 2019. Gender identity minorities and workplace legislation: A new GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews gender identity and workplace legislation at national and international levels across Europe.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 410, 2019

Gender identity minorities and workplace legislation in EuropeDownload PDF
by Sidiropoulou, Katerina

GLO Fellow Katerina Sidiropoulou

Author Abstract: It is a fact that transgender people experience severe discrimination in various forms not only in their everyday lives but also in their working lives, especially when transitioning. It seems that Europe is slowly changing over the years as there are constant calls to tackle this complex issue by considering the inclusion of a third gender option, the abolition of any abusive practices, recommendations for legal redress in cases of violation, and a more transparent and self-determined legal recognition procedure. There are national laws which offer protection on the basis of gender identity at national and international levels. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of uniformity due to a number of unresolved matters such as uncertainty about who is covered, whether gender identity should be covered as a protected ground, what is required to gain a legal change of name and gender marker in official documents, who is responsible for authorization and uncertainty over the stages, nature and duration of the actual procedure. Fewer distressed transgender employees and transphobic incidents are observed when there is greater social acceptability, organizational effort and national intervention. Research and collective actions by movements, political leaders, academics, medical experts and non-governmental organizations are further required to minimize societal and employment exclusions of transgender people.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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