Temporary employment, loneliness at work and job satisfaction: How do they associate? New GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that employees with a temporary contract experience more loneliness at work as opposed to employees with a permanent contract. It also reveals that loneliness at work mediates the association between working temporarily and job satisfaction.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 437, 2019

Does loneliness lurk in temp work? Exploring the associations between temporary employment, loneliness at work and job satisfaction Download PDF
by
Moens, Eline & Baert, Stijn & Verhofstadt, Elsy & Van Ootegem, Luc

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: This research contributes to the limited literature concerning the determinants of loneliness at work, as well as to the literature on psychological outcomes associated with temporary work. More specifically, we are adding to the literature by exploring whether there is an association between working temporarily and loneliness at work and whether loneliness at work partly explains the association between working temporarily and job satisfaction. To this end, we analyze—by means of a mediation model—a unique sample of Flemish employees in the private sector. We find that employees with a temporary contract experience more loneliness at work as opposed to employees with a permanent contract. In addition, we discover that loneliness at work mediates the association between working temporarily and job satisfaction.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Cancer Survivors: Getting back to work. Literature review in a new GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the return rate to the labor market is between 50% and two thirds; survivors face lower work abilities and discrimination.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 436, 2019

Labour Market Outcomes for Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Reviews Download PDF
by
Sharipova, Adelina & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Objectives: To synthesise the existing reviews conducted on the labour market outcomes of cancer survivors by focusing on (i) the convergences and divergences on the overall work-related outcomes, (ii) the moderating factors studied to date, and (iii) an identification of areas where more research is needed in the future. Methods: A systematic review of the existing reviews on labour market outcomes for cancer survivors was performed. Bibliographic search for eligible studies published before January 2019 involved the following three core concepts: (i) cancer survivors, (ii) work, and (iii) review. The quality of the included reviews was assessed based on the Johns Hopkins Hospital Evidence Level and Quality Guide. Following this, a narrative synthesis of the findings was completed. Results: In total, 35 articles met the inclusion criteria. The average return to work (RTW) rate varied between 54% and 66%. The self-reported work ability was consistently lower following cancer. This review also found strong converging evidence of self-reported discrimination after cancer. The effects on work performance showed several inconsistencies, possibly due to the use of different definitions of work performance. Most moderating factors for successful work outcomes showed converging evidence, except for age, marital status, cancer type, and country. We provide several possible explanations and linkages for these divergencies. Conclusions: Further investigation of causal relationships by (i) using matched control groups and by (ii) gathering longitudinal data, and the use of more standardised definitions of the outcome variables are the two main future research recommendations. Furthermore, no studies have succeeded in measuring the work outcomes objectively. We provide specific recommendations from an interdisciplinary context to solve this.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Interview with GLO Fellow Dejan Kovač: After the Race for President of Croatia

In 2019, Dejan Kovač, GLO fellow and a former postdoc at Princeton University, left his position in the US and joined the presidential race in Croatia as a candidate. He did not become the president of Croatia, but in his campaign he highlighted the need for structural reforms, promoted civic and economic freedoms, and most importantly attacked corruption relying on his previous research experience.

Besides his research on corruption, Dejan Kovač is taking another promising research endeavor – rethinking the design of Croatia’s labor market to increase its global competitiveness.

In 2017, the Global Labor Organization (GLO) had supported a large international conference Dejan Kovač had organized in Umag to debate the challenges of the global world for labor markets.  The event was hosting some of the best labor economists of our time, including the former chief economist  to president Obama, the late Alan Krueger, a legendary figure and GLO Fellow (see picture below).

Interview

GLO: The scientist and politics: How has the presidential campaign changed you?

Dejan Kovač: Before the campaign I was an economist, during the campaign I remained an economist, and after the campaign I am still an economist.

GLO: Was knowledge of economics and of scientific evidence helpful for you during the race?

Dejan Kovač: Not really. Presidential races in Croatia historically have a problem. This is not a competition about the better program, but rather about to what part of the political spectrum one belongs. I was not able to push any economics topic, because we are still trapped by tales from our history and historical revisionism. It is very unfortunate that there is so little voters’ awareness about the importance of particular topics. Especially because Croatia “lost” close to 10% of its population through emigration due to several main issues: high corruption, bad economic conditions and lack of structural reforms.

GLO: Is emigration the main motivation for your newly started project “Designing Croatia’s labor market for global competitiveness” or are there other important issues at play?

Dejan Kovač: The 10% loss of population is a great shock to our economy. One does not have to have a PhD in economics to realize that this will have a detrimental  effect on  GDP. A larger problem than size is the issue of “brain drain” not only in Croatia, but in the entire region. High-skilled workers are leaving and they would otherwise contribute the most to economic growth. Another problem of our labor market is that the  entire education system is not adequate to satisfy domestic labor market needs and especially global trends.

GLO: What is wrong with Croatia’s education system?

Dejan Kovač: Quotas are such that we are “over-producing” some occupations, which we realistically do not need, while we lack for instance STEM workers, who are “under-supplied”. This is still a residue from our past, when both skills and quantities were defined through central planning. Today not only domestic, but also global market forces are at play. Nevertheless, we have a rigid set of quotas for higher education which has not changed in a reasonable manner in decades. That is the first step to take. It is not an easy task, because redesigning the entire education system implies evaluating labor demand and supply in the future. For this we need the entire Croatia, not just a government which represents one part of the political spectrum only. Either policy makers will realize that and do the urgent structural reforms, or with the next wave of emigrations, our problems will intensify significantly.

GLO: What are decisive elements of the needed university reform and how does this relate to the vitalization of the labor market?

Dejan Kovač: Beyond quotas, we need to raise the skill levels of our workers in such a way that knowledge learned at our universities is up to date with the frontier of innovations at the labor market. We lack “intermediaries” such as incubators who can “translate” knowledge from pure theory to applied science which can be used at the labor market. Also we need to revise the entire curriculum at most universities.

***
With Dejan Kovač spoke Klaus F. Zimmermann, GLO President.

From the left: GLO Fellows Joshua Angrist (MIT), Hank Farber (Princeton University) and Alan Krueger (Princeton University and former Chief Economist of President Obama); 2017 in Umea/Croatia.

Dejan Kovač during the election campaign 2019.

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New GLO Discussion Paper: How same-sex marriage legalization affects interstate migration in the United States.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that same-sex marriage legalization permanently increased the migration flow of homosexuals moving to more tolerant states in the United States.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 435, 2019

The effect of same-sex marriage legalization on interstate migration in the United States Download PDF
by
Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina

GLO Fellow Miriam Marcén

Author Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of marriage regulation on the migratory behavior of individuals using the history of the liberalization of same-sex marriage across the United States. Because the approval of same-sex marriage allows homosexuals access to legal rights and social benefits, marriage becomes more attractive relative to singlehood or other forms of partnership. The differences in the value of other forms of relationship status relative to marriage can affect the migration decisions of individuals, to the extent that those states approving same-sex marriage can be considered less discriminatory. Results show that that legal reform permanently increased the migration flow of homosexuals moving to tolerant states (i.e., those that have legalized same-sex marriage). The physical distance among states does not appear to be driving our estimates since the migration flow of homosexuals is not limited to border or close states. Supplemental analysis, developed to explore whether the migration flow is translated to a significant effect to the stock of homosexuals by state, suggests that that stock increased after the approval of same-sex marriage but that it was transitory, pointing to a ‘no effect’ on the spatial distribution of homosexuals as times went by. The liberalization of marriage for homosexuals also has an effect on the migration behavior of those individuals originating from countries in which same-sex sexual activity is illegal, for whom we observe an outflow migration from those states with same sex marriage, pointing to dissimilarities in cultural aspects related to homosexuality as important factors in migration decisions.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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What employers have in mind when they consider hiring older applicants. New GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that older age signals to recruiters that applicants have lower technological skill, flexibility, and trainability levels. The relevance of these factors decline with higher levels of older workers in the company.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 434, 2019

What Does a Job Candidate’s Age Signal to Employers?Download PDF
by
Van Borm, Hannah & Burn, Ian & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Research has shown that hiring discrimination is a barrier for older job candidates in many OECD countries. However, little research has delved into why older job candidates are discriminated against. Therefore, we have conducted an online scenario experiment involving recruiters to empirically investigate 15 potential stigma related to older age drawn from a systematic review of the literature. We found that older age particularly signals to recruiters that the applicant has lower technological skill, flexibility, and trainability levels. Together, these perceptions explain about 41% of the effect of age on the probability of being invited to a job interview. In addition, we found that the negative association between age and invitation probability is smaller when recruiters work for firms with a higher percentage of older employees.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Robotics Innovation: Findings from AI patenting activities in a new GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals a tremendous increase in AI patenting activities since 2013 with a significant boom in 2015-2016. While most of AI patenting activities remain concentrated in the sectors of software programing and manufacturing of electronic equipment and machinery, there are clear signs of cross-fertilization towards non-tech sectors.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 433, 2019

AI and Robotics Innovation: a Sectoral and Geographical Mapping using Patent Data Download PDF
by
Van Roy, Vincent & Vertesy, Daniel & Damioli, Giacomo

GLO Fellows Vincent Van Roy, Daniel Vertesy & Giacomo Damioli

Author Abstract: Economic activities based on the invention, production and distribution of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have recently emerged worldwide. Yet, little is known about the innovative activities, location and growth performance of AI innovators. This chapter aims to map and analyse the global innovative landscape of AI by exploring 155,000 patents identified as AI-related by means of text-mining techniques. It highlights the emergence and evolution of AI technologies and identifies AI hotspots across the world. It explores the scale and pervasiveness of AI activities across sectors, and evaluates the economic performance of AI innovators using firm accounting information. Finally, it assesses recent trends in venture capital investments towards AI as financial support to promising AI startups. Findings of this chapter reveal a tremendous increase in AI patenting activities since 2013 with a significant boom in 2015-2016. While most of AI patenting activities remain concentrated in the sectors of software programming and manufacturing of electronic equipment and machinery, there are clear signs of cross-fertilisation towards non-tech sectors. The market of AI patenting firms is very vibrant and characterised by a large increase of new and small players with economic performances above industry average. This trend is also reflected by the recent increase in venture capital towards AI startups.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Bribing for health. New GLO Discussion Paper studies the impact of corruption in societies.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that bribing for public services worsens self-assessed health using individual-level data from 28 post-communist countries.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 432, 2019

Can bribery buy health? Evidence from post-communist countries Download PDF
by
Mavisakalyan, Astghik & Otrachshenko, Vladimir & Popova, Olga

GLO Fellows Astghik Mavisakalyan & Olga Popova

Author Abstract: Corruption is pervasive, but we know little about its effects on individual lives. This paper examines whether living in a corrupt society has deleterious effects on health. Using individual-level data from 28 post-communist countries, we demonstrate that bribing for public services worsens self-assessed health. Unlike other studies, we account for endogeneity of bribery and show that bribing for any type of public service, not just for health services, has an adverse impact. We also find that bribery lowers the quality of services received. Moreover, there are potentially high indirect costs of bribery since, as we show, it comes at the expense of cutting food consumption. These findings suggest that corruption is a potentially important source behind the poor health outcomes in many developing countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Female Startups in Africa: New GLO Discussion Paper investigates the determinants of success of women entrepreneurs

A new GLO Discussion Paper analyzes the role of networks in the access of female entrepreneurs to start-up capital and firm performance in Eswatini, a country with one of the highest female unemployment rates in Africa. Women who receive support from professional networks have higher initial capital.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 431, 2019

Networks, Start-up Capital and Women’s Entrepreneurial Performance in Africa: Evidence from EswatiniDownload PDF
by
Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry

GLO Fellow Zuzana Brixiová

Author Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of networks in the access of female entrepreneurs to start-up capital and firm performance in Eswatini, a country with one of the highest female unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first shows that higher initial capital is associated with better sales performance for both men and women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs start their firms with smaller start-up capital than men and are more likely to fund it from their own sources, which reduces the size of their firm and sales level. However, women with higher education start their firms with more capital than their less educated counterparts. Moreover, women who receive support from professional networks have higher initial capital, while those trained in financial literacy more often access external funding sources, including through their networks.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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ASSA 2020 in San Diego. Impressions from the Kuznets Prize Reception with IESR of Jinan University

On January 3, the Kuznets Prize of the Journal of Population Economics was given to Gautam Hazarika, Chandan Kumar Jha, and Sudipta Sarangi at the IESR/Jinan University reception with Jim Heckman, Klaus F. Zimmermann and Shuaizhang Feng:

Shuaizhang Feng (Dean of IESR) introduced IESR and gave a warm welcome to the participants. Klaus F. Zimmermann introduced the Kuznets Prize, the award article and the authors. Jim Heckman congratulated the authors and the responsible organizations for the success and presented the award certificates. Chandan Kumar Jha and Sudipta Sarangi took the honors for all three authors and received the deserved applause of the large audience. Greetings went to author Gautam Hazarika and the responsible editor of the awarded article, Alessandro Cigno, who both could not be in San Diego.

Since 2019, Shuaizhang Feng is also an Editor of the Journal of Population Economics, Jim Heckman has been an Associate Editor for decades, while Klaus F. Zimmermann is the Founder and Editor-in-Chief. Heckman and Zimmermann supported IESR from the beginning. GLO is proud to note that all authors have joined the organization as Fellows, as Cigno, Feng and Heckman.

Award and event details.
Prize paper: Ancestral ecological endowments and missing women
(Please click title for FREE READ LINK) Published in the Journal of Population Economics (2019), 32(4), pp. 1101-1123. The annual prize honors the best article published in the Journal of Population Economics.

1. Paper examines the relationship between ecological endowments in antiquity and contemporary female to male sex ratios in the population.
2. It finds robust evidence that there are proportionately more missing women in countries whose ancestral ecological endowments were poorer.
3. Gender inequality is larger, that is, the female to male sex ratio lower, in regions whose peoples’ ancestors experienced greater resource stress captured by historical crop yields measures.
4. A conclusion is that ecological resource scarcity led to gender inequality in the intra-household allocation of resources in the past and that the associated behaviors have been culturally transmitted to the present as norms.

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ASSA Meeting in San Diego started: Kuznets Prize Ceremony Tonight with Nobel Prize Winner Jim Heckman present.

The Kuznets Prize of the Journal of Population Economics is given tonight in San Diego/USA at the IESR reception (6-8pm) at the ASSA 2020 Conference.

Details on the prize -winning article, the authors and the event. Entry is open freely for ASSA 2020 participants.

IESR Dean Shuaizhang Feng (Jinan University), also an Editor of the Journal of Population Economics will open the event as the host. Editor-in-Chief and GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann will introduce the award; and Nobel Prize Winner Jim Heckman (University of Chicago), also an Associate Editor of the Journal, will present the award certificates to the three authors.

The article:
Gautam Hazarika, Chandan Kumar & Sudipta Sarangi:
(please click title for FREE READ LINK)
Ancestral ecological endowments and missing women
Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 32 (2019), Issue 4 (October), pp. 1101-1123.

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