Inter-generational transmission of fertility preferences in Romania: How the 1966 abortion ban has affected the demand for children in the next-generation

How do fertility preferences transfer between generations within families? In a new Discussion Paper of the Global Labor Organization (GLO), GLO Fellow Federico H. Gutierrez (Vanderbilt University) provides evidence using a historical event, the 1966 abortion ban in Romania. Current fertility preferences of individuals are negatively affected by parental experiences with the ban.

Federico H. Gutierrez: The Inter-generational Fertility Effect of an Abortion Ban: Understanding the Role of Inherited Wealth and Preferences, GLO Discussion Paper No. 167FREE DOWNLOAD.

ABSTRACT

This paper studies to what extent banning first-generation women from aborting affected the fertility of second-generation individuals who did not face such legal constraint. Using multiple censuses from Romania, the paper follows men and women born around the 1966 Romanian abortion ban to study the demand for children over their life cycle. The empirical approach combines elements of the regressions discontinuity design and the Heckman’s selection model. Results indicate that second-generation individuals whose mothers were affected by the ban had a significantly lower demand for children. One-third of such decline is explained by inherited socio-economic status and two-thirds presumably by preferences. (Abstract marginally adapted from the DP.)


Titles and free access to all GLO Discussion Paper

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers).

Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

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New study shows: Individuals of Eastern Orthodox religion are less happy and have less social capital

Relative to Catholics, Protestants and non-believers, those individuals of Eastern Orthodox religion seem to be less happy, have less social capital and prefer old ideas and safe jobs. In a new Discussion Paper of the Global Labor Organization (GLO), Simeon Djankov and Elena Nikolova provide strong empirical evidence using global data sources to suggest that this is support for the received Berdyaev hypothesis of communism as a successor of orthodoxy.

Simeon Djankov  is associated  with the London School of Economics and Political Science, UK and the Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics, USA.

GLO Fellow Elena Nikolova is associated with the Central European Labor Studies Institute, Slovakia, the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg, Germany, and University College London.

Simeon Djankov & Elena Nikolova: Communism as the Unhappy Coming, GLO Discussion Paper No. 192FREE DOWNLOAD.

ABSTRACT

Eastern Orthodox believers are less happy compared to those of Catholic and Protestant faith using data covering more than 100 countries around the world. Consistent with the happiness results, the study also finds that relative to Catholics, Protestants and non-believers, those of Eastern Orthodox religion have less social capital and prefer old ideas and safe jobs. In addition, Orthodoxy is associated with left-leaning political preferences and stronger support for government involvement in the economy. Compared to non-believers and Orthodox adherents, Catholics and Protestants are less likely to agree that government ownership is a good, and Protestants are less likely to agree that getting rich can only happen at the expense of others. These differences in life satisfaction and other attitudes and values persisted despite the fact that communist elites sought to eradicate church-going in Eastern Europe, since communists maintained many aspects of Orthodox theology which were useful for the advancement of the communist doctrine. The findings are consistent with Berdyaev’s (1933, 1937) hypothesis of communism as a successor of Orthodoxy. (Abstract marginally adapted from the DP.)

Titles and free access to all GLO Discussion Papers

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers).

Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

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Immigration restrictions induce lower cultural assimilation

As migration research has shown, restricting free labor mobility leads to more migrants in the host country. People stay longer or forever and bring family. My 2014 article on Circular Migration has reviewed this point providing evidence for Mexico and Germany. In the German context, the 1973 migration labor recruitment stop has lead to more migrants when the restrictions were binding.

In this tradition, a new scientific study forthcoming in the Journal of Population Economics investigates the impact of restrictions on cultural assimilation. If those migrants with a stronger affection to the culture of origin are more temporary, more of them stay even permanently, and restrictions may lead to a slower cultural assimilation into the host country, among them or even in the next generation. The new paper studies the impact on second-generation cultural assimilation in this context.

THE PAPER:

Immigration restrictions and second-generation cultural assimilation: theory and quasi-experimental evidence

by Fausto Galli & Giuseppe Russo

Fausto Galli is at the Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Statistiche, Universita’ di Salerno, Fisciano, Italy

GLO Fellow Giuseppe Russo is at the Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Statistiche, Universita’ di Salerno, Fisciano, Italy and at the Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), Napoli, Italy

Website Link. Accepted for publication, forthcoming in the Journal of Population Economics. Available online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-018-0694-z

The Journal of Population Economics is supported by the Global Labor Organization (GLO).

ABSTRACT

We study the effects of immigration restrictions on the cultural assimilation of second-generation migrants. In our theoretical model, when mobility is free, individuals with a stronger taste for their native culture migrate temporarily. When immigration is restricted, however, these individuals are incentivized to relocate permanently. Permanent emigrants procreate in the destination country and convey their cultural traits to the second generation, who will therefore find assimilation harder. We test this prediction by using the 1973 immigration ban in Germany (Anwerbestopp) as a quasi-experiment. Since the ban only concerned immigrants from countries outside the European Economic Community, they act as a treatment group. According to our estimates, the Anwerbestopp has reduced the cultural assimilation of the second generation. This result demonstrated robustness to several checks. We conclude that restrictive immigration policies may have the unintended consequence of delaying the intergenerational process of cultural assimilation.

The responsible editor has been Klaus F. Zimmermann.

Journal of Population Economics

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Brown & Zimmermann: Both Co-Directors of POP discussed the strategy for 2018 at UNU-MERIT in Maastricht

Alessio Brown and Klaus F. Zimmermann, both Co-Directors of POP at UNU-MERIT in Maastricht, met on March 28, 2018 at UNU-MERIT to discuss the annual research strategy for the group and to meet with PhD students, researchers and GLO Fellows. GLO stands for Global Labor Organization.

They informed researchers about GLO Thematic Clusters, in particular those on Africa (Lead: Almas Heshmati), Gender (Lead: Nick Drydakis) and Conflict (Lead: Tilman Brück).

These and other GLO research programs will be presented and discussed at the forthcoming 25th EBES conference with FOM and GLO in Berlin on May 23 – 26.

Brown and Zimmermann also participated at the UNU-MERIT migration seminar of the day. Klaus F. Zimmermann, who is also the President of the Global Labor Organization (GLO), will present a paper in the UNU-MERIT migration seminar on April 18.

UNU-MERIT and POP also host the office of the Journal of Population Economics. Klaus F. Zimmermann, who is also the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal, discussed strategic issues and daily business matters with Michaella Vanore (UNU-MERIT and POP), the Managing Editor of the Journal.

Alessio Brown (left) and Klaus F. Zimmermann

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Ritzen & Zimmermann discuss European employment challenges at UNU-MERIT, Maastricht: A full employment strategy

Jo Ritzen is Professor of International Economics of Science, Technology and Higher Education, Maastricht University, UNU‐MERIT, Graduate School of Governance. Klaus F. Zimmermann is Professor, UNU‐MERIT, Maastricht University and Bonn University; President, Global Labor Organization (GLO) and Research Fellow, CEPR.

Since years, Ritzen and Zimmermann have discussed the development of the European labor markets as a core factor behind Euroscepticism, which has been seen as posing an existential threat to the European Union. Therefore, European labor policies need to become more ambitious to fight unemployment. In their new discussion paper, Ritzen and Zimmermann outline the challenges and perspectives of a full employment policy across Europe: “We need a full employment strategy for Europe!”

Jo Ritzen & Klaus F. Zimmermann: Towards a European Full Employment Policy, UNU-MERIT Discussion Paper #2018-018.

ABSTRACT

Full employment in the European Union member states is a challenge but feasible, also in downswings of the business cycle and during stages of increased robotization. It requires labor legislation that ensures flexibility and retraining, responsive labor sharing during the business cycle and to individual life cycle needs, government interventions to supply supplemental employment and revamping dual education. The future of work is better ensured with coordinated European full employment labor policies establishing fair work conditions based on long-run business strategies as well as a fair distribution of national income between labor and capital.

Jo Ritzen (right) and Klaus F. Zimmermann at UNU-MERIT, Maastricht.

In 2017, Jo Ritzen has published a related book on: A Second Chance for Europe. Economic, Political and Legal Perspectives of the European Union, Springer Verlag Heidelberg.

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“Migration belebt den Arbeitsmarkt”: GLO Präsident Zimmermann im Grundsatz-Interview mit den “Salzburger Nachrichten”

Migration und Arbeitsmarkt bewegt Europa in vielfältiger Weise. Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht Universität und Universität Bonn), der auch Präsident der Global Labor Organization (GLO) ist, hatte diese Thematik jüngst in Österreich in Wien diskutiert:

Im Kontext mit diesen Veranstaltungen entstand ein Grundsatzinterview “Migration belebt den Arbeitsmarkt”, das Helmut Kretzl für die “Salzburger Nachrichten” führte und das in print und online am 24.3. 18 erschien und zum 30.3.18 freigeschaltet wurde. Orginaltext “Salzburger Nachrichten” 

Vereinbarte Textfassung Pre-publication:

  • Zwei Themen beherrschen den Arbeitsmarkt:  Arbeitslosigkeit und Fachkräftemangel.  Ist das nicht ein Widerspruch?

Es gibt einen Arbeitsmarkt für die Qualifizierten und einen für weniger Qualifizierte. Auf dem einen kann es Facharbeitermangel geben, auf dem anderen Arbeitslosigkeit. Zugleich kann auch Fachkräftemangel selbst Arbeitslosigkeit erzeugen,  weil ohne Fachkräfte gewisse Produktion nicht stattfindet, weil dabei auch geringer Qualifizierte mitwirken.

Wenn also neue Fachkräfte ins Land kommen, ob als Migranten oder von der Hochschule, schaffen sie  damit auch Nachfrage nach anderen, die schon da sind.  Und wenn dieser Markt leergeräumt ist wie jetzt, dann kann man auch andere Leute nicht in Beschäftigung bringen, die noch arbeitslos sind.

  •  Wie kann man dieses Problem lösen ?

Man könnte  Leute ausbilden – aber bei schrumpfender und alternder Bevölkerung ist es unwahrscheinlich, da rasch jemanden zu bekommen. Oder man könnte Leute durch Zuwanderung holen.

  •  Ist also  der jüngste Zuzug von Migranten gerade zur richtigen Zeit gekommen?

Ich glaube nicht, dass wir mit der Flüchtlingszuwanderung unser demografisches Problem gelöst haben. Erstmal ist die Zuwanderung viel zu klein, um relevant zu sein. Auch in Deutschland, wo sie  relativ groß ist. Von  einer Million Flüchtlingen bleiben  am Schluss nur 400.000 übrig,  die in der Lage sind, am Arbeitsmarkt zu bestehen – wegen  Rückwanderung, Nichtanerkennung oder fehlender Qualifikation. Selbst wenn sie alle arbeitslos  wären, würde die deutsche Arbeitslosenquote nur um einen halben Prozentpunkt steigen,  also praktisch nicht bemerkbar.

Und für eine ökonomisch begründete Zuwanderung sind die Leute zu schlecht ausgebildet. Ich sage  nicht, dass man berechtigten Flüchtlingen nicht eine Chance geben soll. Aber das löst unser Problem am Arbeitsmarkt nicht.

  •  Wie können wir  mehr qualifizierte Zuwanderung  bekommen?

Das müsste man anders regeln und so  wie Australien oder Kanada nach bestimmten Kriterien auswählen. Oder man lässt den Arbeitsmarkt entscheiden. Das gibt es im Prinzip in Deutschland schon heute. Wer  hochqualifiziert ist, einen Universitätsabschluss hat oder genug verdient, braucht  nur ein Jobangebot, dann kann ihn  keiner dran hindern. Das wird aber kaum angenommen. Viele  bleiben lieber in Australien oder gehen nach Amerika, wo sie  mehr gewollt werden.  Denn durch die Flüchtlingsdebatte haben wir in Europa das Image, wir wollen gar keine Zuwanderung. Das verhindert auch, dass sich Hochqualifizierte bewerben. Der richtige Weg bei Flüchtlingen ist, möglichst frühzeitig zu schauen, wie sie qualifiziert werden  und arbeiten können,  bevor das Asylverfahren abgeschlossen ist. Ihr Arbeitsmarktpotenzial kann schon bei ihrer Ersterfassung festgestellt werden.  Wie gut funktioniert der innereuropäische Arbeitsmarkt, für den ja Freizügigkeit gilt?

Bei der Entwicklung des gemeinsamen Europa in den 50er Jahren war es das Ziel,  dass alle Bereiche des Wirtschaftslebens frei sind, auch der Arbeitsmarkt. In der Ökonomie ist ja nicht immer alles im Lot.  In Spanien haben 50 Prozent der Jugendlichen keine Perspektive, während es in Ländern wie Österreich oder Deutschland Jobs gäbe.

Die Idee ist,  dass diese Menschen sich frei bewegen dürfen,  einen Job bekommen und dann Teile ihres Einkommens rücküberweisen in ihre Länder. Das findet auch zunehmend statt. Europa ist flexibler geworden –  durch die Osteuropäer, aber auch durch Zuwanderer aus Drittstaaten außerhalb Europas.  Insofern ist die freie Mobilität von  Migranten durchaus sinnvoll, rein ökonomisch gesehen.

  •  Warum aber kann der EU-Arbeitsmarkt Asymmetrien doch nicht völlig  ausgleichen?

Wegen Sprache, Klima und sozialen Netzwerken ist die Wanderungsbereitschaft immer noch nicht hoch genug. Mit der Integration der Euro-Länder hat die Mobilität aber  zugenommen. So ist es gelungen, asymmetrische Schocks besser abzufangen, die Arbeitslosigkeit ist gesunken, das Bruttosozialprodukt gestiegen.

Trotzdem gibt es die Diskussion, dass Migranten kommen, um  die Sozialsysteme auszubeuten.  Die Politik hat das noch geschürt. Und  wenn sie arbeiten, hat man gesagt, Polen, Bulgaren und Rumänen  würden Einheimischen die Arbeitsplätze wegnehmen. Aber das ist eine empirisch nicht fundierte politische Meinung. Die Arbeitsmarktforschung zeigt, dass Migration die Arbeitsmärkte belebt hat. In England steht  der „Polish plumber“, der  polnische Installateur,  auch für Kompetenz in Bereichen,  wo man vorher keine hatte. Es ist keineswegs bewiesen,  dass Zuwanderung in größerem Stil Arbeitslosigkeit oder Lohndumping  generiert hätte. In Einzelfällen mag das passiert sein, aber nicht massenhaft.

  •  Wie also sollte man Zuwanderung gestalten?

Aus ökonomischer Sicht wären flexible Strukturen  die Lösung. Es gibt einen Kanal, wo man sich bewerben und legal  – unter Kontrolle – ins Land kommen kann. Wenn es das nicht gibt, kommen die Leute illegal. Es wären auch sogenannte zirkuläre Verträge zwischen Staaten möglich, so dass man etwa Kontingente aus Senegal für Verträge über drei  Jahre nimmt. Danach  müssen sie wieder zurückgehen.

  •  Migranten suchen sich also Nischen, wo Einheimische weniger Kompetenzen haben?

Sie suchen Nischen, sie decken auch neue Kompetenzen ab. Oft geht das  über Selbstständigkeit, die ja währen der kürzlichen EU-Osterweiterung erlaubt war im Gegensatz zu normaler Arbeitsmigration.  Viele Befürchtungen in diese Richtung sind nur Anekdote. Einzelfälle gibt’s immer. Aber man muss auf die Statistiken schauen. Nach der EU-Ostöffnung gab es eine kurze Hysterie. Statistisch lässt sich nicht nachweisen, dass es danach einen Ansturm auf das Wohlfahrtssystem gab. Die Migrationsforschung zeigt auch, dass der meiste Widerstand gegen Migration dort stattfindet, wo es gar  keine Migranten gibt. Man hat Angst vor dem, was man nicht kennt.

  •  Wie lange sollen zugewanderte Arbeitskräfte bleiben?

Die meisten Arbeitsmigranten kommen temporär, belegt die Migrationsforschung. Ein Großteil dieser Zuwanderer will nicht dauerhaft bleiben, sie gehen wieder, wenn sie ihr Geld verdient haben oder arbeitslos geworden sind. Insofern ist die Diskussion „wir werden überflutet  und unsere Identität ist bedroht“   überzogen. Außer man behindert die Freizügigkeit. Als man 1973 den Zuzug von Gastarbeitern stoppte, gab es zwei Gruppen. Für die Gastarbeiter aus späteren EU-Ländern gab es  freie Arbeitsmobilität. Ihre Zahl  sank  nach dem Anwerbestopp. Die Leute gingen weg, weil sie wussten, sie konnten wiederkommen. Die andere Gruppe kam aus der Türkei. Ihre Zahl ist gestiegen, obwohl keine Zuwanderung mehr möglich war. Weil sie wussten, dass sie nicht wieder zurück konnten, blieben sie  und haben ihre Familien nachgeholt.

  •  Viele Arbeitnehmer fühlen sich von der Digitalisierung bedroht. Zu Recht?

Digitalisierung  ist ein Symbol für Wandel, der stark mit Ängsten besetzt ist. Die  Marktwirtschaft ist ja ein ständiges Kommen und Gehen, niemand hat einen Job auf Lebenszeit, täglich droht die Arbeitslosigkeit. Digitalisierung ist unheimlich, weil sie den Einsatz von   Robotern bedeutet,  das  ist jemand anderer, wie ein Migrant. Die Ängste sind  ganz ähnlich. Und selbst hochqualifizierte Jobs wie Richter oder Ärzte könnten einmal teilweise ersetzt und automatisiert werden.  Aber die Erfahrung mit technischem Fortschritt über die Jahrhunderte zeigt,  dass man sich   neue Güter und Dienstleistungen einfallen lassen muss und wird. So lange man  da neueAufgaben  für Menschen findet,  ist es sehr unwahrscheinlich, dass uns die Arbeit ausgehen wird.

  •  Aber sie wird wohl anders aussehen?

Vielleicht gibt es eine Strukturverschiebung zu Aktivitäten, wo der menschliche Aspekt eine größere Rolle spielt. Je sozialer die Aktivität ist, umso wichtiger wird der menschliche Faktor werden. Natürlich gibt es Roboter, die Pflegetätigkeiten übernehmen können. Aber bei der persönliche Ansprache wird es  wohl noch eine Weile dauern, bis man Mensch und Maschine nicht voneinander unterscheiden kann.

Bereits vor  20 Jahren hat man das Ende der Arbeit ausgerufen, man dachte, der technische Fortschritt würde kommen und alles wegrationalisieren. Das ist  nicht eingetroffen. Im Gegenteil, heute haben wir in vielen Ländern die historisch höchsten Beschäftigungsraten, auch in Österreich. In vielen Ländern ist wieder die Rede von Vollbeschäftigung als Ziel, das war lange kein Thema mehr.

  •  Die neue österreichische Regierung will Mittel für die Arbeitsmarktpolitik kürzen. Ist das gerechtfertigt?

Das hängt an der politischen Zielsetzung, dabei müssen die sozial- und arbeitsmarktpolitischen Konsequenzen außereinander gehalten werden. Wenn Arbeitsmarktpolitik effektiv Beschäftigung schafft, dann haben nicht nur Menschen einen Job, sondern der Staat gewinnt durch Steuereinahmen und Transferabbau. Solche Kürzungen wären dann auch fiskalisch kontraproduktiv.

Das Interview führte Helmut Kretzl für die “Salzburger Nachrichten”.

 

Klaus F. Zimmermann, Wirtschaftsprofessor und Präsident der Global Labor Organization (GLO), äußert hier seine Meinung.

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Shuaizhang Feng and Klaus F. Zimmermann Debate Long-term Unemployment in China and Europe

How to measure, analyze and fight long-term unemployment in China and Europe? Labor market experts Shuaizhang Feng (Jinan University) and Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht) discussed this in Guangzhou/China on March 19, 2018.

On the invitation of Professor and Dean Shuaizhang Feng, Head of the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IESR), the President of the Global Labor Organization (GLO), Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht), visited Jinan University in Guangzhou/China from March 11 to March 20. Together with GLO Fellow Feng, he has organized a joint IESR – GLO Labor Workshop that took place at Jinan University on March 13, 2018.

On March 19, Shuaizhang Feng and Klaus F. Zimmermann had a more than two hours dialogue discussing labor market challenges and policies in China and Europe. They talked about similar unemployment problems, exploring underlying causes of the high long-term unemployment rates, and the consequences and policies to address these issues.

Chinese – European dialogue in Guangzhou/China on March 19, 2018: Shuaizhang Feng (right) and Klaus F. Zimmermann

016.jpg

Source: https://iesr.jnu.edu.cn/#/EnWeb/News/NewsDetail?id=2019&nid=5&cid=2

China (following Feng et al., 2017): “Unemployment rates in countries across the world are strongly correlated with GDP. China is an unusual outlier from the pattern, whose official government statistics show abnormally low, and suspiciously stable, unemployment rates relative to its GDP….. Estimates of China’s unemployment rate for its local urban Hukou population using a more reliable, nationally representative dataset for that population than in prior work…. show unemployment rates …” that “…differ dramatically from those supplied in official data and are much more consistent with what is known about key historical developments in China’s labor market. The rate averaged 3.7% in 1988–1995, when the labor market was highly regulated and dominated by state-owned enterprises, but rose sharply during the period of mass layoff from 1995 to 2002, reaching an average of 9.5% in the subperiod from 2002 to 2009.” Researchers work on more transparent regular statistics which will help to improve employment policies.

Europe: In early 2018 (January), Europe exhibits high unemployment rates (European Union: 7.3%; Euro Area 8.6%) with a large variance (e.g., Greece 21%; Spain 16%; Romania 4.6%; Germany 3.6%) following the slow recovery after the worldwide 2008 recession. European markets were largely stagnating with youth unemployment traditionally twice as large as general unemployment. An exception has been Germany which has demonstrated that structural unemployment can be reduced through labor market reforms. Cross-country variations of long-term unemployment are characterized by skills mismatch, inflexibility, lack of education and compensating differentials. Solutions include youth vocational training, flexible management of working time in crisis periods (short-time work, time accounts, labor hording), social cohesion, controlled unit labor costs, incentive-oriented labor policies and effective program evaluation.

 

Literature:

Shuaizhang Feng, Yingyao Hu & Robert Moffitt: Long run trends in unemployment and labor force participation in urban China, Journal of Comparative Economics, 45 (2017) 304–324.

Shuaizhang Fengy & Naijia Guo: Labor Market Dynamics in Urban China and the Role of the State Sector, (2018), Jinan University, mimeo.

Jo Ritzen & Klaus F. Zimmermann: Towards a European full employment policy, UNU-MERIT Discussion Paper #2018-018.

Ulf Rinne & Klaus F. Zimmermann: Is Germany the North Star of Labor Market Policy?, IMF Economic Review, 61 (2013), 702-729.

Pierre Cahuc
Stéphane Carcillo
Ulf Rinne
Klaus F. Zimmermann
Youth Unemployment in Old Europe: The Polar Cases of France and Germany
IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 2:18 (2013)

THANKS FOR THE DEBATE AND A GREAT VISIT:

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Family and Childhood Experiences Affect Adult Wellbeing: New Free Discussion Paper

This is the GLO Discussion Paper of the month March 2018: 
Flèche, Sarah & Lekfuangfu, Warn N. & Clark, Andrew E. , The Long-Lasting Effects of Family and Childhood on Adult Wellbeing: Evidence from British Cohort Data, GLO Discussion Paper, No. 184, March 2018. Free download.

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Abstract: To what extent do childhood experiences continue to affect adult wellbeing over the life course? Previous work on this link has been carried out either at one particular adult age or for some average over adulthood. We here use two British birth-cohort datasets (the 1958 NCDS and the 1970 BCS) to map out the time profile of the effect of childhood experiences on adult outcomes, including life satisfaction. We find that the effects of many aspects of childhood do not fade away over time but are rather remarkably stable. In both birth-cohorts, child non-cognitive skills are the strongest predictors of adult life satisfaction at all ages. Of these, emotional health is the strongest. Childhood cognitive performance is more important than good conduct in explaining adult life satisfaction in the earlier NCDS cohort, whereas this ranking is inverted in the more recent BCS.

This is the GLO Discussion Paper of the month March 2018 written by GLO Fellow Andrew E. Clark, one of the star writers in the wellbeing literature, and co-authors.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers). Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

ALL GLO Discussion Papers of March 2018

190 Residential Satisfaction for a Continuum of Households: Evidence from European Countries – Download PDF
by Borgoni, Riccardo & Michelangeli, Alessandra & Pirola, Federica

189 The economics of university dropouts and delayed graduation: a survey – Download PDF
by Aina, Carmen & Baici, Eliana & Casalone, Giorgia & Pastore, Francesco

188 The Optimal Graduated Minimum Wage and Social Welfare – Download PDF
by Danziger, Eliav & Danziger, Leif

187 Minority Groups and Success in Election Primaries – Download PDF
by Epstein, Gil S. & Heizler, Odelia

186 Two and a half million Syrian refugees, skill mix and capital intensity – Download PDF
by Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre & Torun, Huzeyfe

185 Voting in Hiring Committees: Which “Almost” Rule Is Optimal? – Download PDF
by Baharad, Eyal & Danziger, Leif

184 The Long-Lasting Effects of Family and Childhood on Adult Wellbeing: Evidence from British Cohort Data – Download PDF
by Flèche, Sarah & Lekfuangfu, Warn N.s & Clark, Andrew E.

GLO Fellow Andrew E. Clark

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Editor’s Time: Exchange Between the Editors of Two Top Journals in Economics in Guangzhou

Hua Liang, the Economics Editor of the top Chinese research journal “Social Science in China” met Klaus F. Zimmermann, the Editor-in-Chief of the “Journal of Population Economics” for a thorough exchange of ideas, strategies and practices of the academic journal business. The conversation was guided by Shuaizhang Feng.

On the invitation of Professor and Dean Shuaizhang Feng, Head of the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IESR), the President of the Global Labor Organization (GLO), Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht), visited Jinan University in Guangzhou/China from March 11 to March 20. Together with GLO Fellow Feng, he had organized a joint IESR – GLO Labor Workshop that took place at Jinan University on March 13, 2018.

The meeting between Editor Hua Liang (Beijing) and Editor-in-Chief Klaus F. Zimmermann took place on March 18, 2018 at IESR/Jinan University under the direction of Dean Shuaizhang Feng for two hours.

The peer-reviewed Journal of Zhongguo Shehui Kexue is the top social science journal hosted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. It was founded in 1980 and is committed to China-related studies and publishes in Chinese. Since the beginning, Social Sciences in China publishes articles translated to English to make them available and to seek the debate with the global world.

The journal is a platform projecting new realms, trends and achievements in Chinese academic studies. It introduces the latest developments in Chinese social sciences to a foreign audience and bridges social sciences researchers and readers worldwide. It is a valuable resource for China studies with a large international impact.

The Journal of Population Economics was created in 1988 and is an international quarterly that publishes original theoretical and applied research in all areas of population economics. It is peer-reviewed and covers international research on the economics of population, household and human resources. The journal is considered to be the top field journal in population economics.

Micro-level topics examine individual, household or family behavior, including household formation, marriage, divorce, fertility choices, education, labor supply, migration, health, risky behavior and aging. Macro-level investigations may address such issues as economic growth with exogenous or endogenous population evolution, population policy, savings and pensions, social security, housing, and health care.

For a recent review of the journal see A. Brown and K. F. Zimmermann, Three decades of publishing research in population economics, Journal of Population Economics, (2017), 30: 11-27 and the recent 2017 Report of the Editor-in-Chief.

Both editors, Hua Liang and Klaus F. Zimmermann identified similar challenges for the huge responsibility to select the most important and potentially influential pieces of research from a very large inflow of highly qualified articles, although the two academic products serve somewhat different purposes beyond supporting academic excellence. Facing globalization and benefiting from international exchange were seen as chances. Both editors thanked Dean Shuaizhang Feng for his invitation to this highly productive and informative meeting.

Shuaizhang Feng, Hua Liang and Klaus F. Zimmermann

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Public Policy Lecture on European Migration Challenges: GLO President Zimmermann spoke at Jinan University

The President of the Global Labor Organization (GLO), Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht), visited Jinan University in Guangzhou/China from March 11 to March 20 on the invitation of Dean Shuaizhang Feng, Head of the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IESR).  GLO Fellow Professor Feng had organized on March 13 at Jinan University the first joint IESR – GLO Labor Workshop.

On March 15, 2018, Klaus F. Zimmermann gave a Public Policy Lecture in the University of Jinan on:

European Migration Challenges and Perspectives.

He spoke about:

I. Challenges

►The population size & labor supply challenge: Europe is aging and shrinking

►The European refugee crisis: Global tensions and climate change will bring more

►Facts and perceptions about migration: The opening gap

II. Solutions

►More not less Europe is needed

►Jobs for migrants

►Solving the communication puzzle

III. Perspectives after the French, Dutch, Austrian, German & Italian elections

IV. Conclusions

►A core recommendation for European policy making was that migrants need to get jobs early on, whether they come as refugees or for work.

Zimmermann at work during his lecture.

Literature:

Zimmermann, Klaus F., Refugee and Migrant Labor Market Integration: Europe in Need of a New Policy Agenda. Mimeo. Presented at the EUI Conference on the Integration of Migrants and Refugees, 29-30 September 2016 in Florence. Published in: Bauböck, R. and Tripkovic, M.,  The Integration of Migrants and Refugees.  An EUI Forum on Migration, Citizenship and Demography, European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Florence 2017, pp. 88 – 100.

GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann in Guangzhou while recruiting new GLO Fellows among the very many local top researchers.

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