Violent Conflict Exposure in Nigeria and Labor Supply of Farm Households

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that exposure to violent conflict significantly reduces the total number of hours worked in Nigerian farm households.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 712, 2020

Violent Conflict Exposure in Nigeria and Labor Supply of Farm HouseholdsDownload PDF
by
Chiwuzulum Odozi, John & Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

GLO Fellow Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Author Abstract: Nigeria has experienced bouts of violent conflict in different regions over the last few decades leading to significant loss of life. In this paper, we explore the potential short and accumulated long term effects of such conflict on labor supply of agricultural households. Using a nationally representative panel dataset for Nigeria in combination with armed conflict data, we estimate the effect of violent conflict on a farm household members labor supply. Our findings suggest that exposure to violent conflict significantly reduces the total number of hours the farm household head works and also deceases total family labor supply for agricultural households.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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GLO Virtual Young Scholars Program (GLO VirtYS): Announcement of the 2020-21 GLO VirtYS Cohort

The GLO Virtual Young Scholars Program (GLO VirtYS) 2020/2021 has started its activity.

In the spirit of the GLO Mission, the GLO VirtYS program’s goal is to contribute to the development of the future generation of researchers, who are committed to the creation of policy-relevant research, are well equipped to work in collaboration with policy makers and other stakeholders, and adhere to the highest standards of academic integrity. This goal is achieved through the process of working on a specific research paper within the duration of the program, which is 9 months, and interact with the GLO VirtYS cohort and advisors.

Under the leadership of GLO VirtYS Program Director Olena Nizalova, the participants have virtually met with GLO officials and advisors on November 12 for a warm welcome and first interactions. GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann and GLO Director Matloob Piracha made introductory remarks. GLO VirtYS Program Assistant Yannis Galanakis reported from his experience as a member of the GLO VirtYS 2010/2020 cohort.

The following program participants have been appointed GLO Affiliate:

Shweta Bahl, Muchin Isabel Bazan Ruiz, Jie Chen, Femke Cnossen, María Celeste Gómez, Jun Hyung Kim, Odmaa Narantungalag, and Soumya Pal.

GLO VirtYS Advisors are: Almas Heshmati, Francesco Pastore, Matloob Piracha, Eva Sierminska, Kompal Sinha, and Jan van Ours.

Snapshot from the first meeting:

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GLO Fellow Ira Gang (Rutgers University) spoke about ‘Schooling Forsaken or Not? Education and Migration’. Video from the GLO Virtual Seminar Series.

The GLO Virtual Seminar is a monthly internal GLO research event chaired by GLO Director Matloob Piracha and hosted by the GLO partner institution University of Kent. The results are available on the GLO website and the GLO News section, where also the video of the presentation is posted. All GLO related videos are also available in the GLO YouTube channel. (To subscribe go there.)

The last seminar was given on November 5, 2020 by Ira Gang on Schooling Forsaken or Not? Education and Migration. Below find a report and the video of the seminar.

Announcement/forthcoming seminar:
December 3, 2020: London/UK at 1-2 pm
John P. de New, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, and GLO

Report

Schooling Forsaken or Not? Education and Migration.

GLO Virtual Seminar on November 5, 2020
Ira Gang, Rutgers University and GLO
Video of the seminar.

Based on joint work with Gil Epstein and Ilhom Abdulloev:

GLO Discussion Paper 709: Job Status, International Migration and Educational Choice Download PDF by Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N.

GLO Discussion Paper 641: Schooling Forsaken: Education and Migration – Download PDF by Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N.

Migration and Forsaken Schooling in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, in IZA Journal of Development and Migration, 11(1) by Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N., https://doi.org/10.2478/izajodm-2020-0004

Changes in the Forsaken Schooling and Migration Relationship in Tajikistan (Chapter 10) by Abdulloev, Ilhom, in Brain Drain vs Brain Circulation (Central Asia), 2020

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Gulags, Crime, and Elite Violence: Origins and Consequences of the Russian Mafia

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the origins and consequences of the Russian mafia.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 711, 2020

Gulags, Crime, and Elite Violence: Origins and Consequences of the Russian MafiaDownload PDF

GLO Fellow Jakub Lonsky

Author Abstract: This paper studies the origins and consequences of the Russian mafia (vory-v-zakone). Using a unique web scraped dataset containing detailed biographies of more than 5,000 mafia leaders, I first show that the Russian mafia originated in the Soviet Gulag archipelago, and could be found near the gulags’ initial locations in mid-1990s Russia, some three decades after the camps were officially closed down. Then, using an instrumental variable approach that exploits the proximity of the Russian mafia to the gulags, I show that Russian communities with mafia presence in the mid-1990s experienced a dramatic rise in crime driven by elite violence which erupted shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The violence – initially confined to the criminal underworld – eventually spilled over, leading to indiscriminate attacks against local businessmen, managers of state-owned enterprises, judges, and members of the state security apparatus. However, there was no increase in politically-motivated violence, suggesting a widespread collusion between the mafia and local politicians in the early post-Soviet Russia.

Featured image: Photo-by-JR-Korpa-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Now on Video: Watch the EBES-GLO Joint Webinar with David Audretsch on Covid-19, Democracy & Entrepreneurship chaired by GLO & EBES President Klaus F. Zimmermann from November 13, 2020.

November 13, 2020: EBES-GLO Joint Online Seminar. Berlin 3-4 pm & Istanbul 5-6 pm.

David Audretsch (Indiana University): The Threat Posed by the Covid-19 Pandemic to Democracy & Entrepreneurship. 

Chaired by EBES & GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann
Organized by EBES Vice-President Mehmet H. Bilgin

Video of the event

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Job Status, International Migration and Educational Choice

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that people who consider migrating abroad will have either lower years of schooling, or generally have not completed professional schools.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 709, 2020

Job Status, International Migration and Educational Choice Download PDF
by
Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N.

GLO Fellows Ilhom Abdulloev, Gil Epstein & Ira Gang

Author Abstract: We consider how the possibility of international migration affects an individual’s educational choices in their home country. Without the opportunity to emigrate abroad people choose their educational investment (and hence their skill level) as we might expect, taking into account the utility they derive from the status their attainment bestows. A result of this paper is that if there are low chances of obtaining professional (requires tertiary schooling) jobs in the host country, individuals may well choose an educational track leading to a less-skilled lower status occupational profession in order to increase their chances of obtaining a job in the host country after migration. Thus, all home country students may choose the non-professional education track. Those who might have otherwise pursued higher, professional education may forgo that schooling. The theory developed here explains the forsaken schooling phenomenon, which shows that low-skilled and skilled home country workers are willing to accept low-skilled positions in host countries. This leads to the forgoing of professional schooling in the home country since it is not optimal for the worker in the home country to choose a high skilled education since, they will be overqualified in the host country. This will have a long run affect. As time goes on, therefore, people who consider migrating abroad will have either lower years of schooling, or generally have not completed professional schools (technical-vocational or tertiary).

Featured image: Photo-by-Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Finance, gender, and entrepreneurship: India’s informal sector firms

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds strong empirical evidence supporting the crucial role of financial access in promoting entrepreneurship among informal sector firms in India.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 708, 2020
Finance, gender, and entrepreneurship: India’s informal sector firms Download PDF
by
Gang, Ira N. & Natarajan, Rajesh Raj & Sen, Kunal

GLO Fellow Ira Gang

Author Abstract: How does informal economic activity respond to increased financial inclusion? Does it become more entrepreneurial? Does access to new financing options change the gender configuration of informal economic activity and, if so, in what ways and what directions? We take advantage of nationwide data collected in 2010/11 and 2015/16 by India’s National Sample Survey Office on unorganized (informal) enterprises. This period was one of rapid expansion of banking availability aimed particularly at the unbanked, under-banked, and women. We find strong empirical evidence supporting the crucial role of financial access in promoting entrepreneurship among informal sector firms in India. Our results are robust to alternative specifications and alternative measures of financial constraints using an approach combining propensity score matching and difference-in-differences. However, we do not find conclusive evidence that increased financial inclusion leads to a higher likelihood of women becoming entrepreneurs than men in the informal sector.

Featured image: Photo-by-Trevor-Cole-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Beyond the added-worker and the discouraged-worker effects: the entitled-worker effect

A new GLO Discussion Paper identifies and analyses a new effect related to the cyclical behavior of labor supply: the Entitled-Worker Effect (EWE) and provides evidence for the effect in Spain.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 707, 2020

Beyond the added-worker and the discouraged-worker effects: the entitled-worker effect Download PDF
by
Martín-Román, Ángel L.

GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román

Author Abstract: This paper identifies and analyses a new effect related to the cyclical behavior of labor supply: the Entitled-Worker Effect (EWE). This effect is different from the well-known Added-Worker Effect (AWE) and Discouraged-Worker Effect (DWE). The EWE is a consequence of one of the most important labor institutions: the unemployment benefit (UB). We develop a model with uncertainty about the results of the job seeking and transactions costs linked to such a search process in which a kind of moral hazard appears. This creates new incentives for workers and produces an additional counter-cyclical pressure on aggregate labor supply, but with a different foundation from that of the AWE. Finally, we show some empirical evidence supporting the EWE for the Spanish case.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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What drives social returns to education? A meta-analysis.

A new GLO Discussion Paper documents that education can generate important externalities that contribute towards economic growth and convergence.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 706, 2020

What drives social returns to education? A meta-analysis Download PDF
by
Cui, Ying & Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Author Abstract: Education can generate important externalities that contribute towards economic growth and convergence. In this paper, we study the drivers of such externalities by conducting the first meta-analysis of the social returns to education literature. We analyse over 1,000 estimates from 31 articles published since 1993 that cover 15 countries. Our results indicate that: 1) spillovers slow down with economic development; 2) tertiary schooling and schooling dispersion increase spillovers; 3) spillovers are smaller under fixed-effects and IV estimators but larger when measured at the firm level; and 4) there is publication bias (but not citation bias).

Featured image: Photo-by-Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Unions, Worker Participation and Worker Well-Being

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews the long-term evidence about the relationship between unions and job satisfaction.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 705, 2020

Unions, Worker Participation and Worker Well-Being Download PDF
by
Artz, Benjamin & Heywood, John S.

GLO Fellow John S. Heywood

Author Abstract: This chapter focuses on the lessons learned from four decades of studying the relationship between unions and job satisfaction. We discuss the original paradox that started the literature and trace the on-going debate over results that differ by sample and by estimation technique. We emphasize the cross-national evidence suggesting that the paradox of dissatisfied union members may be largely associated with Anglophone countries. Within Anglophone countries we explore exactly what is typically being measured and how unionization may influence both job characteristics and perceptions of given job characteristics. We explore differences in the influence of union membership on job satisfaction and on broader life satisfaction. We also review the literature on alternative forms of employee representation. We conclude by summarizing and suggesting avenues for future research.

Featured image: Photo-by-Jose-Antonio-Gallego-Vázquez-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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